Alcohol – A colorless volatile flammable liquid which is produced by the natural fermentation of sugars
and is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks, and is also used as an
industrial solvent and as fuel.
A-Lactalbumin – A major protein found in milk and obtained from whey. Whey protein and milks should
Acai Berry – A superfood that can be eaten whole or juiced
Acetic acid – Used in vinegar
Ale – A type of beer – usually sweeter in taste and brewed without hops.
Almond – An edible nut, oval in shape with a woody shell. Often used in cooking / baking
Anchovy – A small fish. Preserved in salt and oil.
Aniseed – The seeds of the anise – which are used in cooking and herbal medicines
Apple Juice – Juice made by squeezing the fruit.
Apples (Raw) – A fruit – numerous different species. Colors are usually green and red.
Apricots – A juicy, soft fruit. Often orange-yellow in color.
Artichoke – A variety of thistle, cultivated for eating
Asparagus – The young shoots of a Eurasian plant. Eaten as a vegetable.
Aubergine – Purple egg-shaped fruit (Also known as an Eggplant). Often eaten as a vegetable.
Avocado – A pear shaped fruit, with rough skin and oily edible flesh. Often eaten in salads, dips and
B-Lactoglobulin – A major protein found in cow's milk and sheep's milk
Bacon – A meat produced from the pig
Banana – A long, curved fruit with edible flesh and yellow skin.
Barley – A major cultivated cereal grain. Often in beer.
Basil – An aromatic herb from the mint family.
Bay Leaf – A dried herb often used in cooking.
Beans (broad) – Small, flat beans. Green in color, also called fava beans
Beans (green) – Long, thin green in color.
Bean(lima) – Small, kidney shaped beans – grown in the pod.
Beans (white) – White bean, usually dried. Also known as the navy bean.
Beef – The flesh of a cow, bull or ox.
Beef Jerky – Beef that has been preserved and dried – often known as jerky.
Beer – An alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented malt flavored with hops
Beets – (beetroot) A dark red, rounded vegetable
Bilberries – Very small, almost black berries.
Blackberries – (Cooked) Edible soft fruit. Often purple-black
Blueberries – Blue– or purple–colored berries.
Boiled Milk – Milk which has been heated to boiling point.
Braeburn apple – Type of apple
Brazil nut – A large, three-sided South American nut
Bread (rye) – Bread made with flour from the rye grain.
Bread (baguette) – A staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Bread (white) – Bread made with white wheat flour.
Bread (brown) – A type of bread, made using whole wheat flour
Brussel Sprouts – Small, compact bud of the cabbage family. Eaten as a vegetable.
Buckwheat – Derived from the seeds of a flowering plant. Does not contain gluten
Butter – A dairy product, made with the natural fat found in milk (milk fat)
Butter (salted) – Butter that has added salt
Butter lettuce – A type of lettuce
Buttermilk – Buttermilk is the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream.
Button mushroom – The most common type of mushroom
Cabbage (Red) – Variety of cabbage with red or purplish leaves.
Cabbage (White) – Variety of cabbage, white in colour.
Chamomile Tea – An infusion of sweet chamomile and dried flowers. Often used for medicinal purposes.
A tea known for reducing stress levels and helping to regulate sleep.
Capsicum (green) – Green pepper – used in cooking
Capsicum (red) – Red pepper – often used in cooking.
Capsicum (yellow) – Yellow pepper – often used to flavor cooking.
Carambola – Star fruit.
Caraway – Seeds from a plant in the parsley family. Used in cooking/oils/seeds.
Cardamom – A spice with a strong, pungent flavor
Carrot – Orange colored, tapering root vegetable
Cashew nut – Edible kidney shaped nut. Rich in oil and protein
Cauliflower – Edible variety of cabbage. Has a large white head and green leaves.
Celery (Raw) – Vegetable used in salads/cooking.
Champagne – A sparkling wine made with grapes from the Champagne region of France.
Cheddar – A relatively hard cheese that can differ in taste and texture.
Cherries (raw) – A small stone fruit, usually red in color.
Chestnut Mushroom – Similar to the button mushroom but have a brown top and more flavorful.
Chestnut – Edible, hard, brown nut. Often eaten roasted.
Chicken – Most common type of poultry.
Chickpea – Cultivated legume. High in protein.
Chicory Lettuce – A type of lettuce
Cinnamon – Aromatic spice. Used in cooking/baking
Clams – An edible mollusk
Clove – Used in Indian and Mexican dishes.
Cocoa – powder made into a hot drink.
Coconut – Large seed with edible flesh. Used in cooking/ juices/ flavorings.
Coconut oil – An edible oil extracted from the coconut
Cod – A large edible marine fish.
Cod liver oil – Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish. As with most fish oils, it
contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
Coffee (black) – Black coffee may refer to: Coffee, served as a beverage without cream or milk, and often
without sugar as well.
Coffee substitute made from barley – A coffee substitute. Usually made without caffeine
Cola – A brown carbonated drink that is flavored with an extract of cola nuts, or with a similar flavoring.
Condensed milk – Usually made from cow's milk by removing water
Coriander – An aromatic culinary herb.
Cornflakes – A breakfast cereal made with toasted flakes of corn.
Crab – A crustacean with edible flesh.
Cranberries – Very small, red colored fruit.
Cranberry juice – Juice made by squeezing the fruit
Crayfish – Freshwater crustacean resembling a small lobster.
Cream – Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk.
Cream Cheese – A cheese made with milk and cream – soft in consistency.
Cress – Fast growing, edible herb
Cumin – Aromatic seed used as a spice.
Currants (red & black) – A small round edible fruit.
Dates – A small round edible fruit.
Dill – Aromatic herb used for flavoring.
Dry roasted peanuts – The popular nut – roasted
Duck – A water bird, known for its short legs and webbed feet.
E 100 Curcumin – Food color, whose color ranges from yellow to red, depending on pH (acidity).
E 101 Riboflavin (Vit. B2) – Yellow food coloring. Used in various products.
E 102 Tartrazine – Yellow food coloring.
E 104 Quinoline yellow – A synthetic 'coal tar' dye varying in color between a dull yellow and greenish-
yellow. Found in ices, scotch eggs and smoked haddock.
E 110 Sunset yellow FCF – A synthetic 'coal tar' and yellow dye used in fermented foods which must be
heat treated. Orange squash, orange jelly, marzipan, Swiss roll, apricot jam, citrus marmalade, lemon
E 1105 Lysozyme – Preservative; it degrades the cell wall of bacteria. Lysozyme acts as a natural
preservative. Used to prevent spoilage of food by inhibiting or preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi
and other microorganisms. It is mainly used in the cheese industry in the maturation of European
cheeses, by preventing the growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores which cause butyric acid
E 120 Cochineal, carminic acid, carmine – Red coloring made from the beetle. Found in alcoholic drinks,
bakery products and toppings, biscuits, desserts, drinks, icings, pie fillings.
E 1200 Polydextrose – Thickening agent and filling agent. Binds water and protects against freeze
E 122 Carmoisine – Red food color – in blancmange, marzipan, Swiss roll, jams and preserves, sweets,
brown sauce, flavored yogurts, packet soups, jellies.
E 123 Amaranth – Food additive derived from the herbaceous plant
E 124 Ponceau 4R – Red food color.
E 127 Erythrosine – A cherry-pink/red synthetic coal tar dye found in cocktail, glacé and tinned cherries,
canned fruit, sweets, dressed crab, salmon spread and packet trifle mix.
E 128 Rot 2 G – Red food color. Restricted use in confectionery and meat products.
E 129 Allura red AC – Red food color. Restricted use in confectionery and meat products.
E 131 Patent blue V – Blue food coloring.
E 132 Indigo Carmine – Blue food color.
E 133 Brilliant blue FCF – Blue food coloring. Ice cream and a few other food products, but mostly in
E 140 Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins – Green food color.
E 1404 Oxidierte starch – Thickening agent and stabilizer
E 141 Chlorophylls – Green food color
E 1410 Monostarch phosphate (modified starch) – Thickening agent and stabilizer in many products
E 1412 Di-starch phosphate (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 1413 Phosphatized di-starch p. (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 1414 Acetylated di-starch phosphate (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 142 Green – A green synthetic coal tar dye found in desserts, gravy granules, ice cream, mint sauce,
sweets, packet breadcrumbs, cake mixes and tinned peas.
E 1420 Acetylated starch (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 1422 Acetylated di-starch adipate (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 1440 Hydroxypropyl starch (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 1442 Hydroxypropyl di-starch phosphate (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 1450 Starch sodium octenylsuccinate (modified starch) – Thickening agent in many products
E 150 Caramel Brown to black color – found in brown foods.
E 150 b Sulphite lye Caramel – Brown to black in color. In brown bread, buns, chocolate, biscuits, brandy,
chocolate flavored flour-based confectionery, coatings, decorations, fillings and toppings, crisps, fish
spreads, frozen desserts, pickles, sauces and dressings, cola drinks, sweets, vinegar, whisky.
E 150 c Ammonia Caramel – Brown to black coloring – found in brown food items.
E 150 d Sulphite-ammonia Caramel – Brown to black in color. Found in brown foods.
E 1505 Triethyl citrate – Flavor component in many products
E 151 Brilliant black BN, black PN – Used in decorations and coatings, desserts, fish paste, flavored milk
drinks, ice cream, mustard, red fruit jams, sauces, savory snacks, soft drinks, soups and sweets.
E 1518 Glycerin triacetate (Triacetin) – It is used as a solvent for flavors; it also has some anti-fungal
E 152 Vegetable carbon – Black color. Many products, but limited use due to insolubility in water.
E 154 Brown FK – Brown food coloring. Restricted use – in some fish products.
E 160 a Carotene (mixed carotene, Beta-Carotene) – Dark red color flavor.
E 160 c Capsanthin, Capsorubin – Used widely in poultry feed to deepen the color of egg yolks it can also
be found in cheese slices and chicken pies.
E 161 b Lutein – Yellow food coloring. Rarely used. If used only in soups and alcoholic beverages.
E 161 g Canthaxanthin – Orange food color. Slightly soluble in water. Widely used, also in tanning pills.
E 162 Beetroot red (betanin) – Widely used red food coloring.
E 163 Anthocyanins – Found in black cherry yogurt, dairy products, glacé cherries, ice cream, jellies,
pickles, soft drinks, tomato, carrot or vegetable soups and sweets.
E 170 Calcium carbonate – White color for surface coating; anti-caking agent, filling agent
(pharmaceuticals), stabilizer in canned fruit.
E 171 Titanium dioxide – White color for surface coating, used to separate layers in products; whitening
agent in toothpaste.
E 172 Iron oxides – Iron hydroxides can be found in cake and dessert mixes, meat paste, salmon and
E 173 Aluminium – As a food additive it is used solely for external decoration of sugar-coated flour
confectionery, in cake decorations and to give a silvery finish to pills and tablets.
E 174 Silver – Silver grey color. Only used for surface coating. Rarely used.
E 175 Gold – Golden color. Only used for surface coating.
E 180 Lithol rubine – Red color. Only used for surface coating of cheese.
E 200 Sorbic acid – Found in candied peel, cider, dessert sauces, fillings and toppings, fermented milks,
E 202 Potassium sorbate – It can be found in candied peel, cheese, cider, concentrated fruit juice,
dessert sauces, dried apricots, fillings and toppings, fermented milks, frozen pizzas.
E 203 Calcium sorbate – Can be found in candied peel, cheese, cider, concentrated fruit juice, dessert
sauces, dried apricots, fillings and toppings, fermented milks, frozen pizzas, fruit salads, gelatin capsules,
margarine, processed cheese spreads.
E 210 Benzoic acid – Can be found in beer, coffee essence, dessert sauces, soft drinks, flavoring syrups,
fruit juice, pulp and purée, jam, margarine, marinated herring
E 211 Sodium benzoate – Found in barbecue sauce, caviar, cheesecake mix, fruit pies, margarine, pickled
cucumbers, pineapple juice, prawns, preserves, salad dressing, soya sauce, sweets and table olives.
E 213 Calcium benzoate – Used as a preservative, both antibacterial and antifungal. Can be found in
concentrated pineapple juice.
E 214 Ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate – Preservative found in soft drinks, condiments, baked goods, cheese,
ice creams, alcoholic drinks, relishes, margarine, salad dressings, medicines and other products.
E 215 Sodium ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate – It is used as an antifungal preservative.
E 217 Sodiumpropyl-p-hydroxybenzoate – Preservative
E 218 Methyl-para-hydroxbenzoate – Preservative.
E 219 Sodium methyl-para-hydroxybenzoate – Preservative
E 220 Sulphur dioxide – Typically found in beers, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar,
and potato products.
E 221 Sodium sulphite – Used as a decontaminating agent in fresh orange juice, and during sugar
E 222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite – Preservative. May cause an allergic reaction in some people,
especially asthmatics. Destroys vitamins B1 and E.
E 223 Sodium metabisulphite – Preservative.
E 224 Potassium metabisulphite – Preservative.
E 226 Calcium sulphite – Preservative. May cause asthma. A gastric irritant. Destroys vitamins B and E.
E 227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite – Preservative.
E 228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite – Preservative.
E 233 Thiabendazole – Banned in some countries, it is typically applied to citrus fruits, apples, pears,
potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, and milk.
E 234 Nisin – Nisin is a natural antimicrobial agent, derived from controlled fermentation of the naturally
occurring bacteria Streptococcus lactis, found in milk.
E 239 Hexamethylene-tetramine – Used as a preservative against fungi in food products such as Caviar,
cheese, herring and preserved fish.
E 242 Dimethyl dicarbonate – Used in wine, carbonated drinks and flavored waters.
E 249 Potassium nitrite – A color fixing and curing agent for meat.
E 250 Sodium nitrite – Used for curing(preserving) meat and fish products
E 251 Sodium nitrate – Sodium nitrate is a salt used extensively as a preservative and color fixative of
E 252 Potassium nitrate – Used in the preservation of meat products,
E 260 Acetic acid – It can be found in beer, bread, cheese, chutney, horseradish cream, pickles, salad
cream, brown sauce, fruit sauce, mint sauce and jelly
E 261 Potassium acetate – salt of acetic acid Typically found in such products as sauces and pickles.
E 262 Sodium acetate – salt of acetic acid Typical use in food products include bouillon's. Used as a
preservative in liquorice, as a pickling agent and as a flavor-enhancing additive in meat and poultry. A
frequent use is to impart a salt and vinegar flavor to potato crisps.
E 270 Lactic acid – Found in many different products.
E 280 Propionic acid – Commonly used in bread and flour products.
E 281 Sodium propionate – propionic acid typical products are flour products, where it is used as a mold
inhibitor, and a means of reducing the yeast content of bread.
E 282 Calcium propionate – propionic acid Typical products are flour products, where it is used as a mold
inhibitor, and a means of reducing the yeast content of bread.
E 283 Potassium propionate – propionic acid typical products are flour products, where it is used as a
mold inhibitor, and a means of reducing the yeast content of bread.
E 296 Malic acid – Typical products include non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, gelatins, puddings,
and fillings, hard and soft sweets, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices.
E 300 Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) – Ascorbic acid also known as Vitamin C, essential for growth, healthy
teeth, gums, bones, skin and blood vessels and aiding the absorption of iron, is found naturally in many
fresh fruits and vegetables. Signs of deficiency – Easy bruising, dry skin, slow metabolism
E 301 Sodium L-ascorbate – Typical products include bread, fruit drinks, pie fillings, poultry, wine, jams,
E 302 Calcium L-ascorbate – Used as an antioxidant, a color preservative and as a vitamin supplement. It
can be found in bouillons, consommés, scotch eggs and other food products.