Acai Berry – A superfood that can be eaten whole or juiced; This fruit is typically an inch-long and reddish-purple in color. It comes from the acai palm tree, which is native to Central and South America.
Acetic acid – A colorless, liquid organic compound. It has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. Used in vinegar as a condiment and as a pickling agent.
A-Lactalbumin – Known as “whey protein.” It is the albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey. It is a protein that regulates the production of lactose in the milk. Lactalbumin is found in the milk of many mammals, including humans and cows. Used in cheeses, cream, butter, and other products that contain real dairy.
Alcohol- Known as ethanol or ethyl alcohol, it is the ingredient found in beer, wine, and spirits that causes drunkenness.
Ale – A type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. Historically, the term referred to a drink brewed without hops. There are many types of ales, including pale ale, brown ale, Indian pale ale (IPA), and more.
Almond – An edible, oval nut with a woody shell. Almonds can be eaten raw or cooked. They can be made into oils, milk, butter, or flour as an alternative to dairy or gluten products.
Anchovy – A small shoaling fish of commercial importance as a food fish and as bait. It is strongly flavored and is usually preserved in salt and oil. Sometimes used in Worcestershire sauce, Barbecue sauces made with Worcestershire, Caesar salad and Caesar dressing
Aniseed – A flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean. It is often used in herbal medicine.
Apple Juice – A fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting expelled juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate.
Apples (Raw) – A sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree
Apricots – A juicy, soft fruit. They are orange-yellow in color. The flesh is usually firm and not very juicy. Its taste can range from sweet to tart. The single seed is enclosed in a hard, stony shell, often called a “stone” or “kernel”, with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side
Artichoke – A vegetable with thistles, deeply lobed, silvery, glaucous-green leaves. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud with numerous triangular scales; the individual florets are purple. The edible portions of the buds consist primarily of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the “heart”; the mass of immature florets in the center of the bud is called the “choke” or beard. These are inedible in older, larger flowers.
Asparagus – The young shoots of a Eurasian plant. Asparagus has been used as a vegetable and medicine, owing to its distinct flavor, diuretic properties, and more.
Aubergine – Also known as eggplant. Often considered a vegetable, even though it is a berry by botanical definition. Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines.
Avocado – They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Often eaten in salads, dips and cooking.
Lactoglobulin – The major whey protein of cow and sheep’s milk. It is also present in many other mammalian species; a notable exception being humans. The purpose of beta-lactoglobulin is less clear, and although it can bind many small hydrophobic molecules, it’s main purpose may just be to act as a source of amino acids.
Bacon – Cured meat from the sides and belly of a pig, having distinct strips of fat and typically served in thin slices. Eaten cooked. Items can be flavored with bacon as well.
Banana –The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe.
Barley – A member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.
Basil – A tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia. It is a tender plant and is used in cuisines worldwide. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell. Basil is most commonly used fresh in recipes. In general, it is added at the last moment, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto—a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce.
Bay Leaf – An aromatic leaf commonly used in cooking. It can be whole or ground dried pieces of the plant. It comes from several plants. They are used in soups, stews, meat, seafood, vegetable dishes, and sauces.
Beans (broad) – Small, flat beans. Green in color, also called fava beans. The beans with the outer seed coat removed, can be eaten raw or cooked. In young plants, the outer seed coat can be eaten, and in very young plants, the seed pod can be eaten.
Beans (green) – Long, thin green in color. They are distinguished from the many other varieties of beans in that green beans are harvested and consumed with their enclosing pods, before the bean seeds inside have fully matured. They can be called French beans, string beans, snap beans, and snaps.
Bean (lima) – Small, kidney shaped beans – grown in the pod. Although it is considered a legume and is a protein, it is used as a vegetable in cooking. Also known as a butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean.
Beans (white) – White beans come from the flowering plants of the legume family. Popular varieties include the navy bean (also called white pea bean, small white bean, Great Northern bean, Boston bean, Yankee bean or fagioli), which is small and cooks relatively quickly.
Beef – The flesh of different cuts of cattle.
Beef Jerky – A lean cut of meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before enough moisture has been removed. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F). Some product manufacturers finely grind meat, mix in seasonings, and press the meat-paste into flat shapes prior to drying.
Beer – An alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented malt flavored with hops. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavors and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavoring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops.
Beets – (beetroot) A dark red, rounded vegetable. Also known as table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. Other than as a food, beets have use as a food coloring and as a medicinal plant. Usually eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable.
Bell pepper (Green) – Green peppers are less sweet and slightly more bitter.
Bell pepper (Orange) – Orange bell peppers has thick flesh and is much sweeter than the green, but it is not as sweet as the red ones.
Bell pepper (Red) – Red bell peppers are simply ripened green peppers. The sweetest of bell peppers.
Bell pepper (Yellow) – Less bitter and more sweet than green peppers.
Bilberries – Very small, dark blue berries. They are different from North American blueberries, although the species are closely related. Bilberry are non-climacteric fruits with a smooth, circular outline at the end opposite the stalk, whereas blueberries retain persistent sepals there, leaving a rough, star-shaped pattern of five flaps. Bilberries grow singly or in pairs rather than in clusters, as blueberries do, and blueberries have more evergreen leaves. Bilberries are dark in color, and usually appear near black with a slight shade of purple.
Blackberries – (Cooked) Edible soft fruit. Often purple-black. They contain numerous seeds. When cooked, they become softer.
Boiled Milk – Milk which has been heated to boiling point.
Braeburn apple – A cultivar of apple that is firm to the touch with a red/orange vertical streaky appearance on a yellow/green background. Its color intensity varies with different growing conditions.
Brazil nut – A large, three-sided South American nut. Often found in mixed nuts.
Bread (rye) – A type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat flour. It is higher in fiber than white bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor.
Bread (baguette) –A long, thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law). It is distinguishable by its length and crisp crust.
Bread (white) – Made from wheat flour from which the bran and the germ layers have been removed (and set aside) from the whole wheatberry as part of the flour grinding or milling process, producing a light-colored flour. The flour used in white breads are bleached further—by the use of chemicals such as potassium bromate, azodicarbonamide, or chlorine dioxide gas to remove any slight, natural yellow shade and make its baking properties more predictable.
Bread (brown) – A designation often given to breads made with significant amounts of whole grain flour, usually wheat, and sometimes dark-colored ingredients such as molasses or coffee.
Brussel Sprouts – Small, leafy green vegetables that typically look like miniature cabbages.
Buckwheat – A plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. Buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel, knotweed, and rhubarb. Can be made into noodles, pancakes, porridge, and more.
Butter – A dairy product with high butterfat content. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water. Most frequently made from cow’s milk, but it can be made from another mammal’s milk.
Butter (salted) – Butter that consists of butterfat, milk proteins, water, and added salt.
Butter lettuce – This type is a head lettuce with a loose arrangement of leaves, known for its sweet flavor and tender texture.
Buttermilk – The liquid left behind after churning butter out of cultured cream. Buttermilk can be drunk straight, and it can also be used in cooking.
Button mushroom – An edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. It has two color states while immature—white and brown—both of which have various names. When mature, it is known as portobello mushroom.
Cabbage (Red) – Also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation. Its leaves are colored dark red/purple. However, the plant changes its color according to the pH value of the soil, due to a pigment belonging to anthocyanins.
Cabbage (White) – Round and firm with tightly packed, pale-green leaves. Their sweet, mild taste makes them excellent in salads such as coleslaw.
Chamomile Tea – The plant is used to flavor foods, in herbal teas, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep.
Carambola – The fruit has distinctive ridges running down its sides (usually five but can occasionally vary); when cut in cross-section, it resembles a star, hence its name. The entire fruit is edible and is usually eaten out of hand. They may also be used in cooking and can be made into relishes, preserves, and juice drinks.
Caraway – Crescent-shaped achenes, with five pale ridges. The fruits, usually used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils, mostly carvone, limonene, and anethole. Caraway is used as a spice in breads, especially rye bread.
Cardamom – Used as flavorings and cooking spices in both food and drink, and as a medicine. E. cardamomum (green cardamom) is used as a spice, a masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked.
Carrot – A root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cashew nut – Edible kidney shaped nut. Rich in oil and protein. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter.
Cauliflower – Edible variety of cabbage. Has a large white head and green leaves.
Celery (Raw) – A cultivated plant of the parsley family, with closely packed succulent leafstalks.
Champagne – A sparkling wine made with grapes from the Champagne region of France.
Cheddar – A kind of firm smooth yellow cheese, originally made in Cheddar in southwestern England.
Cherries (raw) – A small stone fruit, or drupe, that belongs to the same family as apricots, peaches, and plums.
Chestnut- A glossy brown nut that may be roasted and eaten. Chestnuts can be dried and milled into flour, which can then be used to prepare breads, cakes, pies, pancakes, pastas, polenta, or used as thickener for stews, soups, and sauces.
Chestnut Mushroom – An edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. It has two color states while immature—white and brown—both of which have various names.
Chicken – A bird used for meat or eggs. Most common type of poultry.
Chickpea – Cultivated legume. High in protein. Also known as garbanzo beans. Chickpeas are a key ingredient in hummus, chana masala, and can be ground into flour and made into falafel. It is also used in salads, soups and stews.
Chicory Lettuce – A mildly bitter type of lettuce popular in Italy and widely available in the USA. There are also cultivars with red stems, and sometimes white ones will show red streaks. Chicory is generally used raw to pep up salads with fairly heavy dressings but can also be cooked and will then be milder.
Cinnamon – An aromatic spice made from the peeled, dried, and rolled bark of a Southeast Asian tree. Used in cooking/baking.
Clams – An edible mollusk. Clams can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, baked or fried. They can also be made into clam chowder, clams casino, Clam cakes, stuffies, or they can be cooked using hot rocks and seaweed in a New England clam bake.
Clove – Cloves are aromatic flower buds used as a spice. Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, and the Near and Middle East countries, lending flavor to meats, curries, and marinades, as well as fruit such as apples, pears or rhubarb. Cloves may be used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages, often combined with other ingredients such as lemon and sugar. They are a common element in spice blends such as pumpkin pie spice and speculoos spices.
Cocoa – The dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids (a mixture of nonfat substances) and cocoa butter (the fat) can be extracted. Cocoa beans are the basis of chocolate, and Mesoamerican foods including tejate, a pre-Hispanic drink that also includes maize.
Coconut – The inner flesh of the mature seed forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called “coconut milk” in the literature, and when immature, may be harvested for their potable “coconut water”, also called “coconut juice”.
Coconut oil – The fatty oil obtained from the coconut and used in candies, confections and in cosmetics.
Cod – A large edible marine fish. Cod has a mild flavor and a dense, flaky, white flesh.
Cod liver oil – Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish. Cod liver oil for human consumption is pale and straw colored, with a mild flavor. As with most fish oils, it contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
Coffee (black) – Black coffee may refer to: Coffee, served as a beverage without cream or milk, and often without sugar as well.
Coffee substitute made from barley – A coffee substitute. Usually made without caffeine. Coffee substitutes are sometimes used in preparing foods served to children or to people who avoid caffeine, or in the belief that they are healthier than coffee.
Cola – A brown carbonated drink that is flavored with an extract of cola nuts, or with a similar flavoring. Most contain caffeine. Most modern colas contain caramel color, and are sweetened with sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup.
Condensed milk – Usually made from cow’s milk by removing water. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.
Coriander – An aromatic culinary herb. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste.
Cornflakes – A breakfast cereal made with toasted flakes of corn. There are many generic brands of corn flakes produced by various manufacturers. As well as being used as a breakfast cereal, the crushed flakes can be a substitute for bread crumbs in recipes and can be incorporated into many cooked dishes.
Crab – A crustacean with edible flesh. Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in many different ways all over the world. Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species, just the claws or legs are eaten.
Cranberries – Very small, red colored fruit. Fresh cranberries are hard, sour, and bitter.
Cranberry juice – Juice made by squeezing the fruit.
Crayfish – Freshwater crustacean resembling a small lobster. Only a small portion of the body of a crayfish is eaten. In most prepared dishes, such as soups, bisques and étouffées, only the tail portion is served.
Cream – Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream, this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called “separators”.
Cream Cheese – A soft, usually mild-tasting fresh cheese made from milk and cream. Stabilizers such as carob bean gum and carrageenan are typically added in industrial production.
Cress – Fast growing, edible herb. Garden cress is added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor. It is also eaten as sprouts, and the fresh or dried seed pods can be used as a peppery seasoning (haloon).
Cumin – Aromatic seed used as a spice. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Cumin can be an ingredient in chili powder (often Tex-Mex or Mexican-style), and is found in achiote blends, adobos, sofrito, garam masala, curry powder, bahaarat, and is used to flavor numerous commercial food products.
Currants (red & black) – Dried berries of the small, sweet, seedless grape cultivar ‘Black Corinth.’ When dried, they are used in cooking, especially baking and are a major ingredient of currant slice (or currant square) and currant cake.
Dates – Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes
Dill – Aromatic herb used for flavoring. Fresh and dried dill leaves are widely used as herbs in Europe and central Asia. Like caraway, the fernlike leaves of dill are aromatic and are used to flavor many foods such as gravlax (cured salmon) and other fish dishes, borscht and other soups, as well as pickles.
Dry roasted peanuts – The popular nut – roasted. Dry roasting changes the chemistry of proteins in the food, changing their flavor, and enhances the scent and taste of some spices.
Duck – A water bird, known for its short legs and webbed feet. Duck meat is derived primarily from the breasts and legs of ducks. The meat of the legs is darker and somewhat fattier than the meat of the breasts, although the breast meat is darker than the breast meat of a chicken or a turkey. Being waterfowl, ducks have a layer of heat-insulating subcutaneous fat between the skin and the meat.
E 100 Curcumin – A bright yellow chemical produced by some plants. The most common applications are as an ingredient in dietary supplement, in cosmetics, and as flavoring for foods, such as turmeric-flavored beverages in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. As a food additive for orange-yellow coloring in prepared foods, its E number is E100.
E 101 Riboflavin – Also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains. As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines. It may be given by mouth or injection. As a food additive, it is used as a deep yellow – orange – red food coloring.
E 102 Tartrazine – A synthetic lemon-yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring. A commonly used color all over the world, mainly for yellow, and can also be used with Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1, E133) or Green S (E142) to produce various green shades.
E 104 Quinoline yellow – A mixture of organic compounds derived from the dye Quinoline Yellow SS (Spirit Soluble). Quinoline Yellow is permitted in beverages and is used in foods, like sauces, decorations, and coatings; Quinoline Yellow is not listed as a permitted food additive in Canada or the US, where it is permitted in medicines and cosmetics and is known as D&C Yellow 10.
E 110 Sunset yellow FCF – A petroleum-derived orange azo dye. When added to foods sold in the US it is known as FD&C Yellow 6; when sold in Europe, it is denoted by E Number E110. Sunset Yellow is used in food, cosmetics, and drugs. For example, it is used in candy, desserts, snacks, sauces, and preserved fruits. Sunset Yellow is often used in conjunction with E123, amaranth, to produce a brown coloring in both chocolates and caramel.
E 1105 Lysozyme – An enzyme, that is commercially prepared from chicken eggs or by bacteria. One of the most powerful natural antibacterial and antiviral compounds known to man, has been used in foods and pharmaceuticals for over three decades as it naturally inhibits the growth of many spoilage organisms, increases a healthy shelf life and ensures food safety.
E 120 Cochineal, carminic acid, carmine – A pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminum salt of carminic acid. The pigment is produced from some scale insects. It is routinely added to food products such as yogurt, candy and certain brands of juice, the most notable ones being those of the ruby-red variety.
E 1200 Polydextrose – A synthetic polymer of glucose. It is a food ingredient classified as soluble fiber by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as Health Canada, as of April 2013. It is frequently used to increase the dietary fiber content of food, to replace sugar, and to reduce calories and fat content. It is a multi-purpose food ingredient synthesized from dextrose (glucose), plus about 10 percent sorbitol and 1 percent citric acid. Its E number is E1200.
E 122 Carmoisine – An azo dye produced only by chemical synthesis as a disodium salt. In its dry form, the product appears red to maroon. It is mainly used in foods which are heat-treated after fermentation. Used in blancmange, marzipan, Swiss roll, jams and preserves, sweets, brown sauce, flavored yogurts, packet soups, jellies.
E 123 Amaranth – An anionic dye. As a food additive it has E number E123. Amaranth usually comes as a trisodium salt. It has the appearance of reddish-brown, dark red to purple water-soluble powder. Can be found in cake mixes, jelly crystals, wine, spirits, soups, and desserts.
E 124 Ponceau 4R – A strawberry red azo dye which can be used in a variety of food products and is usually synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons Can be found in salami, tinned fruits, dessert mixes, or soups.
E 127 Erythrosine – An organoiodine compound, specifically a derivative of fluorone. It is cherry or melon-pink synthetic, primarily used for food coloring. Commonly used in sweets such as some candies and popsicles, and even more widely used in cake-decorating gels. It is also used to color pistachio shells.
E 128 – A synthetic red azo dye. It is used as a synthetic coloring agent in food and drink products. The common name for E128 is Red 2G.
E 129 Allura red AC – It is usually supplied as its red sodium salt, but can also be used as the calcium and potassium salts. It is used in many products, such as cotton candy, soft drinks, cherry flavored products, children’s medications, and dairy products. It is by far the most commonly used red dye in the United States.
E 131 Patent blue V – A dark bluish synthetic triphenylmethane dye used as a food coloring. It can be found in Scotch eggs, certain jelly sweets, blue Curaçao, and certain jello varieties.
E 132 Indigo Carmine – An organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation, which renders the compound soluble in water. It is approved for use as a food colorant. Used in ice-cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionery, and biscuits.
E 133 Brilliant blue FCF – A synthetic dye produced by the condensation of 2-formylbenzenesulfonic acid and the appropriate aniline followed by oxidation. It is often found in cotton candy, ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blueberry flavored products, children’s medications, dairy products, sweets, soft drinks, and drinks, especially the liqueur Blue Curaçao. It is also used in soaps, shampoos, mouthwash and other hygiene and cosmetics applications.
E 140 Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins – Natural green color, present in all plants and algae. Commercially extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa. Used in pasta, absinthe, cheeses, preserved vegetables, jams, jellies and marmalades.
E 1404 Oxidierte starch – Prepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidized. Used as a thickening agent and stabilizer. Often used to thicken instant desserts.
E 141 Chlorophylls – Synthetic copper complex of chlorophyll (E140), a natural green color, which is present in all plants and algae. E141 is commercially extracted from nettles, grass and alfalfa. Due to chemical de-esterification of chlorophyll, phaeophytins are formed. Used in sweets, soups, ice creams, and preserved green fruits and vegetables.
E 1410 Monostarch phosphate (modified starch) – As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas.
E 1412 Di-starch phosphate (modified starch) –Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent.
E 1413 Phosphatized di-starch p. (modified starch) – A modified resistant starch. It is derived from high amylose maize starch. It is currently used as a food additive and as a freeze-thaw-stable thickener (stabilises the consistency of the foodstuff when frozen and thawed). It is used in products such as soups, sauces, frozen gravies and pie fillings.
E 1414 Acetylated di-starch phosphate (modified starch) – Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent and acetic acid. The resulting starch has increased stability and dissolves better at low temperatures. Used in yogurt, puddings, mayonnaise, canned foods, ice cream, frozen microwave noodle, sauce, salad dressing, seasoning, and tarre juice.
E 142 Green – A green synthetic coal tar dye found in desserts, gravy granules, ice cream, mint sauce, sweets, packet breadcrumbs, cake mixes and tinned peas.
E 1420 Acetylated starch (modified starch) – Can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, binder, emulsifier during food and cosmetic processing. Used in ketchups, sauces, mayonnaises, semi-finished products, horticultural preserved products, marmalades, jams, spices, different products made of fruits and ice-cream.
E 1422 Acetylated di-starch adipate (modified starch) – A starch that is treated with acetic anhydride and adipic acid anhydride to resist high temperatures. It is used in foods as a bulking agent, stabilizer and a thickener. Used predominately in frozen cakes, dry mixes (cupcakes, muffins, cakes, cookies, and self-saucing puddings), flavored toppings and sauces, breakfast cereals, custard powders, mayonnaises and salad dressings. Also used in soups, vegetable and meat sauces, ketchup, and fruit concentrates, jams, marmalades, jellies, and purees, desserts, whipped creams, pies and fillings, and instant beverages, fermented milk, drinking yogurt, flavored milks, pre-cooked pastas and noodles, sausages, meat balls, fish balls.
E 1440 Hydroxypropyl starch (modified starch) – Obtained by treatment of corn or wheat starch with heat, alkali, acids or enzymes. Used in food thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers and texturizers in various commercial foods: baked goods, ice creams, jams, canned foods, confections, sauces, etc.
E 1442 Hydroxypropyl di-starch phosphate (modified starch) – Prepared by treating starch with propyleneoxide and phosphoric acid. The resulting starch is more stable against acid, alkaline and starch degrading enzymes. It also provides better color and shine to products and has very good freeze-thaw properties.
E 1450 Starch sodium octenylsuccinate (modified starch) – Salt of starch octenylsuccinate which exhibits emulsifying properties is used as food additive and is also recommended as yolk replacer in the process of mayonnaise production.
E 150 Caramel Brown to black color – Gives a dark brown color to food and are produced by heat treatment of sucrose. These colorings can sometimes add a bitter taste to food products containing them. E150 can also act as an emulsifier in soft drinks.
E 150 b Sulphite lye Caramel – Complex brown color mixture, made by dry heating and burning of sugars in the presence of alkali, ammonia, sulphite or combinations thereof. Used in brown bread, buns, chocolate, biscuits, brandy, chocolate flavored flour-based confectionery, coatings, decorations, fillings and toppings, crisps, fish spreads, frozen desserts, pickles, sauces and dressings, cola drinks, sweets, vinegar, whisky.
E 150 c Ammonia Caramel – Dark brown to black liquids or solids having an odor of burnt sugar. Used in beer, sauces (high salt applications), cocoa extender in bakery and confections.
E 150 d Sulphite-ammonia Caramel – A water-soluble food coloring. It is made by heat treatment of carbohydrates, in general in the presence of acids, alkalis, or salts, in a process called caramelization. It is more fully oxidized than caramel candy and has an odor of burnt sugar and a somewhat bitter taste.
E 1505 Triethyl citrate – An ester of citric acid. It is a colorless, odorless liquid used as a food additive to stabilize foams, especially as whipping aid for egg white.
E 151 Brilliant black BN, black PN – Used in decorations and coatings, desserts, fish paste, flavored milk drinks, ice cream, mustard, red fruit jams, sauces, savory snacks, soft drinks, soups and sweets.
E 1518 Glycerin triacetate (Triacetin) – It is the triester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride. Used as a fungicide, humectant and solvent for flavors derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US, essences, cigarette filters.
E 152 Vegetable carbon – Vegetable carbon is produced by steam activation of carbonized vegetable material2. It can used both as a food coloring and as a medication (it can be used to absorb chemicals).
E 154 Brown FK – A brown mixture of six synthetic azo dyes, with addition of sodium chloride, and/or sodium sulfate. Used in smoked and cured mackerels and other fish and also in some cooked hams and other meats.
E 160 a Carotene (mixed carotene, Beta-Carotene) – Natural color isolated from several plants; however, it is obtained commercially from carrots. Used in margarine, shortening, butter, cheese, baked goods, confections, ice cream, eggnog, macaroni products, soups, juices, beverages, dairy products, bakery products, meat, seafood, snack food, fruit preparations, and convenience foods.
E 160 c Capsanthin, Capsorubin – Used widely in poultry feed to deepen the color of egg yolks it can also be found in cheese slices and chicken pies.
E 161 b Lutein – Synthesized only by plants and like other xanthophylls is found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and yellow carrots. Yellow food coloring. Rarely used. If used only in soups and alcoholic beverages.
E 161 g Canthaxanthin – Found in some mushrooms, crustaceans and fish, so vegetarians beware, but it is normally obtained commercially from beta-carotene. Used in such products as chicken in breadcrumbs, fish fingers, mallow biscuits, pickles and preserves, sauces and sweets it is also fed to farmed salmon and trout to enhance the color of the flesh. Fed to laying hens to color egg yolks. It is also used to color the skin in artificial sun-tan products.
E 162 Beetroot red (betanin) – A red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. The most common uses of betanins are in coloring ice cream and powdered soft drink beverages; other uses are in some sugar confectionery, e.g. fondants, sugar strands, sugar coatings, and fruit or cream fillings. In hot processed candies, it can be used if added at the final part of the processing. Betanin is also used in soups as well as tomato and bacon products.
E 163 Anthocyanins – Can be derived from a number or sources such as grape skin extract, blackcurrant extract, purple corn color, and red cabbage color. Used in dairy products, soups, glacé cherries, sweets, pickles, jelly, and soft drinks.
E 170 Calcium carbonate – A common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which is a type of sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcite) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggs. Can be found in biscuits, bread, cakes, ice cream, sweets, vitamin and other tablets and to firm canned fruit and vegetables, it is sometimes used for to deacidify wine. Also used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders.
E 171 Titanium dioxide – A natural color found as chalk, limestone, marble, dolomite, eggshells, and the shells of many marine animals. Used in biscuits, breads, cakes, ice-cream, sweets, vitamins and other tablets, canned fruit and vegetables, wine.
E 172 Iron oxides – Natural minerals, but for commercial usage, they are produced chemically from iron powder. They exist in a range of colors. Used in salmon pastes, shrimp pastes, meat pastes, cake and dessert packets, and soups.
E 173 Aluminium – A naturally occurring silvery-white metal smelted from the ore, Bauxite. Because of its chemical form, aluminium never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to varying degrees in almost all rocks, vegetation, and animals. Used in tablets, sugar-coated flour, confectionery, and cake decorations.
E 174 Silver – Obtained from crushed silver bearing ore. As a food additive it is used solely for external decoration where it can be found on chocolate confectionery, in the covering of dragées and the decoration of sugar-coated flour confectionery.
E 175 Gold – Gold is extracted by the cyanide process (extracting gold from its ore by treatment with sodium cyanide) or by amalgamation with mercury. Amalgamation involves gold being drawn into mercury to form an alloy – amalgam. The mercury can then be removed by being dissolved in nitric acid, leaving gold. Used in sugar-coated flour confectionery and chocolate confectionary decorations.
E 180 Lithol rubine – A reddish synthetic azo dye. It is used to color cheese rind as well as a component in some lip balms
E 200 Sorbic acid – Naturally occurs in the fruit of the European Mountain-ash, after which the acid is named. It is commercially produced by several different chemical pathways. Used in a wide range of products, such as yogurt and other fermented dairy products, fruit salads, confectionery, lemonade, cheese, rye bread, cakes and bakery products, pizza, shellfish, lemon juice, wine, cider and soups.
E 203 Calcium Corbat – Made from the neutralization of sorbic acid and is therefore the calcium salt of sorbic acid. Used in dairy products, rye bread, frozen pizzas, dessert sauces, dried apricots, fruit salads, gelatin capsules, and other sweets.
E 210 Benzoic acid – Whilst occurring naturally in many edible berries, fruits and vegetables it is available commercially by chemical synthesis from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia. Can be found in beer, coffee essence, dessert sauces, soft drinks, flavoring syrups, fruit juice, pulp and purée, jam, margarine, marinated herring.
E 211 Sodium benzoate – It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams and fruit juices, pickles, condiments and yogurt toppings.
E 213 Calcium benzoate – Benzoic acid, benzoates and benzoic acid esters are commonly found in most fruits, especially berries. In addition to fruits, benzoates occur naturally in mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves and some dairy products (as a result of bacterial fermentation). For commercial purposes, it is prepared chemically from toluene. It is used in soft drinks, fruit juice, concentrates, soy milk, soy sauce and vinegar. It is the most widely used preservative in making bread and other bakery products.
E 214 Ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate – An ethyl ester resulting from the formal condensation of the carboxy group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with ethanol It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an antifungal agent, a plant metabolite and a phytoestrogen. Used in alcoholic beverages such as red wine, white wine, and sake.
E 215 Sodium ethyl-para-hydroxybenzoate – It is used as an antifungal preservative. Found in most fruits, mushrooms, cinnamon, cloves, some dairy products (as a result of bacterial fermentation). For commercial purposes, it is prepared chemically from toluene and then esterified.
E 217 Sodiumpropyl-p-hydroxybenzoate – The sodium salt of propylparaben, a compound, is also used similarly as a food additive and as an anti-fungal preservation agent. Used as a food preservative.
E 218 Methyl-para-hydroxbenzoate – Naturally found as a pheromone for a variety of insects and is a component of queen mandibular pheromone. Preservative used in ice cream, alcoholic drinks, medicine, and baked goods.
E 219 Sodium methyl-para-hydroxybenzoate – An antifungal synthetic preservative in food products, drugs and cosmetics. Used in baked goods, ice cream, and medicine.
E 220 Sulphur dioxide – A common substance which also has bleaching effects that are exploited in order to prevent discoloration of products such as flour. It occurs naturally from the combustion of sulphur, hydrogen sulphide or gypsum, and may be considered a pollutant. Used in sausages, burgers, dried fruit, vegetables, and soft drinks.