Aster – Also known as Aster Root. Flowering plant with purple or pink blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, herbal tea, etc. Vapor inhaled as steam.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) – Major cereal grain. Ranked 4th in quantity produced, behind maize (corn), rice and wheat. Used for medicinal purposes and as a nutritional supplement.
Bee – Flying insects that sting. Known for their role in pollination. Includes bumble bees, honeybees, etc. Bee products such as raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, beeswax and apitoxin (bee venom) are used for medicinal purposes, skin, hair, bath, and personal care products, health supplements, etc.
Bermuda Grass – Grass most often recognized by its runners. Used for sports fields, golf courses, lawns, parks, etc.
Buckwheat (Kootu) – Considered a grain, but actually a fruit seed. Recognized by its broad leaf.. Used for medicinal purposes, health supplements, skin and hair products. Being gluten-free, it’s an excellent food substitute for wheat, rye, barley and oats.
Buttercup – Flowering plant with yellow blooms. Toxic to humans and cattle when fresh but safe when dried. Dried plants are used for medicinal purposes and herbal tea.
Cats – Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.
Chamomile – Flowering plant with daisy-like blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin and bath products, aromatherapy, herbal tea, etc. Used on wounds and for pain and swelling.
Chrysanthemum – (Mum) Flowering plant with colorful blooms. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc. Also used as an insecticide and for pest control.
Clover – Small, low growing plant, found in lawns. Usually has three leaves (considered lucky to find four) and small white or red flowers. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.
Colonial Bent Grass – Very fine-bladed, cool-season grass. Mainly found on high maintenance golf course greens, tees, fairways, croquet courts, tennis courts and lawn bowling greens.
Cotton – Soft, fluffy fiber that grows in a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant. Used to make fabrics, thread, etc.
Dahlia – A flowering plant with colorful spiky blooms. Many different colors. Used in landscaping and floristry. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, cosmetics, herbal tea, etc.
Dandelion – Common weed with numerous seeds attached to white, fluffy “parachutes” that disperse in the wind. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes, skin products, herbal tea, etc.
Dead Nettle (Purple Deadnettle) – Common weed with small pink or white tubular blooms and purple or red upper leaves. Edible. Used for medicinal purposes. Leaves used on wounds or cuts.
Dock Plant (Curly dock, Yellow dock)– Common weed with fleshy to leathery leaves. Used for medicinal purposes, herbal tea, coffee substitute, etc. Also used for dye and leather tanning. Broad-leaf dock leaves used on burns, blisters and nettle stings.
Dogs – Household pets’ saliva, urine, dander (dried flakes of skin), fur or hair.
Duck Feathers – Tough exterior feathers and down, the fine, soft and airy under-layer. Used as a thermal insulator and padding in jackets, bedding, pillows, sleeping bags, etc.
Dust – Fine particles of soil, plant pollen, human and animal hair, textile fibers, paper fibers, etc. in the atmosphere or that accumulate on surfaces.
E 212 Potassium Benzoate, benzoic acid – Synthetic preservative. Antibacterial and antifungal. Used in margarine, pickles (vinegar), fruit juice (citric acid), soft drinks (phosphoris acid), sparkling drinks (carbonic acid). Used in the whistle in many fireworks.
E 216 Propyl-parahydroxybenzoate (PHB Ester & Propylparaben). Synthetic preservative. Used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
E 230 Biphenyl, Diphenyl – Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay of citrus fruit during transportation and storage.
E 231 Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) – Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay of citrus and other fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage.
E 232 Sodium orthophenylphenate, Orthophenylphenol (SOPP) – Synthetic preservative. Used to prevent decay in apples and pears and other fruits during transportation and storage.
E 235 Natamycine – Also known as Pimaracin. Used as an antifungal medication, in skin products, eye drops, throat lozenges, etc. Used as a surface preservative for certain cheeses and dried sausage products.
E 284 Boric acid – Natural acid. Used to control insects, spiders, mites, algae, molds, fungi and weeds. Also used in soil amendments, fertilizers, cleaners, detergents and personal care products.
E 285 Sodium tetraborate (Borax) – Natural acid. Used for cleaning purposes and as an ant killer. In many detergents, cosmetics and enamel glazes.
E 290 Carbon dioxide, carbonic acid – Natural waste gas excreted by your lungs as you breathe out. High levels are often caused by hypoventilation or a breathing disorder. Carbonic acid is formed from dissolving carbon dioxide in water. Used in carbonated beverages.
E 385 Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) – Chemical salt. Used in pharmaceutical products, shampoos, cleaners, cosmetics, agricultural sprays and dentistry. Used as a preservative and to improve color, texture and flavor in soft drinks, salad dressings, pickled vegetables, canned foods, etc. Used as a chelating agent to treat metal toxicity.
E413 Tragacanth – Sap-like material (resin) from the plant. Natural thickening agent. Used in medicines, toothpastes, lotions, denture adhesives, vaginal products, etc.
E 491 Sorbitan monostearate (Spans) – Synthetic wax. Used as a protective covering on fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage. Used to create synthetic fibers, metal machining fluid, brighteners in the leather industry, coatings, pesticides, plastics and cosmetics. Foods found in: candy, icecream, cakes, cookies, pudding, beverages, etc.
E 504 Magnesium carbonate, M.-hydrogen carbonate – (Chalk) Used as a drying agent on athletes’ palms. Added to salt to prevent sticking Used for flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing, smoke suppressant, fillers, reinforcing and drying agents. Also used in, laxatives, cosmetics, dusting powder, toothpaste, mineral supplements for color retention in foods.
E 516 Calcium sulphate – Naturally occurring salt. Used to produce plaster of Paris (dental impressions, casts), stucco (construction) & gypsum (construction & soil additive). Used in silica gel dry packs. Used in food as a thickening agent (dairy and grain products, etc.).
E 528 Magnesium hydroxide – Used in antacids and laxatives. Best known as milk of magnesia. Also used in dishwashing liquid.
E 536 Potassium ferrocyanide – Reacts with iron to produce a blue pigment, used for blueprint paper. An ingredient in coatings for steel files, saws, tools, welding rods, etc. Used in electroplating, silver plating, dyeing textiles, manufacture of mirrors, medicine, detergents, pesticides, photographic processes, etc.
E 551 Silicon dioxide (silica) – Found in nature as quartz. A major component of sand. Used in concrete, the production of glass, an electrical insulator in microelectronics, etc. Silica is an occupational hazard for people who do sandblasting or work with stone countertops or other products that contain crystalline silica. Also used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, toothpaste, etc. An anti-caking agent in powdered foods, such as spices and non-dairy coffee creamer.